The world essential oil trade value is more than USD 4 billion, with an average growth rate of about 5% per year. In the world, there are more than 300 types of essential oils that are traded in the international market. While the Indonesian essential oils that have been, are being, and have the potential to be developed are more than 40 types, with value of Indonesian essential oil exports at approximately USD 120 million/year.
Around 80% of total production of Indonesian essential oils is exported. Demand for Indonesian essential oil is more than 1,000 tons/year, including clove leaf oil, clove steam oil, lemongrass oil, patchouli oil, and eucalyptus oil, nutmeg oil, cananga oil, citronella oil, etc . While, demand for turpentine oil is more than 10,000 tons/year.
World’s clove oil demand is around 5,000-6,000 tons/year. Biggest consumer of clove oil is the aromatic clove oil derivatives chemical industry such eugenol, iso eugenol, caryophelene, and that has developed in the country. Therefore, the challenge to be faced is to maintain and increase demand.
World’s lemongrass oil demand is cover 2,000 tons/year. China as a market leader of world’s citronella oil took over the role of Indonesia in the world’s supply of lemongrass oil. However, currently, China’s lemongrass oil production tends to go down, but domestic consumption increased to more than 800 tons/year. While, Indonesian lemongrass oil production lately slumped around 300 tons/year. The use of lemongrass oil is very diverse, among others, for flavor-fragrance, detergents, insect repellents, aromatic chemicals, and fuel additives. Insect repellents, aromatic chemicals, and fuel additives. The challenge faced by Indonesia is to be able to restore the glory of lemongrass oil production in Indonesia, which in the international market is known as Java Citronella Oil.
Currently, world patchouli oil demand in normal situation is around 1200-1500 tons/year. Meanwhile, Indonesian patchouli oil production is about 1,500 tons/year. The biggest consumer of patchouli oil is the fragrance industry (as fixative), but lately the fragrance industry tends to reduce the use dosage due to sharp price fluctuations over the last 4 years. The challenge in Indonesia is that it should be able to succeed the cultiva program (a program intended in a sustainability of supply and transparent and fair price for all stakeholders). Therefore, efforts to balance supply and demand are needed.
World’s turpentine oil demand is only around tens of thousands of tons per year. The major user of turpentine oil is aromatic chemical industry. Indonesia exports turpentine oil of around 10,000 tons/year in the form of crude turpentine oil. Though alpha pinene and beta pinene can be isolated by a chemical derivatives can be made by reaction. The challenge is the policy on sale of crude turpentine by PT Perhutani, and production efficiency should be done in order to compete with China.
Demand for essential oils is around 100-1000 tons/year consisting of nutmeg oil, vetiver oil, and ginger oil. World nutmeg oil demand is about 400 tons/year, but Indonesia is only able to produce about 350 tons/year, but Indonesia is only able to produce about 350 tons/year of nutmeg oil. Currently, it experienced scarcity of nutmeg oil production, as nutmeg plants in Sumatra were attacked by pests. World’s vetiver oil demand is about 100 tons/year, but Indonesia was only able to produce about 30 tons/year. China’s ginger oil is made from ginger pulp, so the price is cheap and can dominate the international market. Indonesia is familiar with Fresh Ginger Oil which price is more expensive, but world demand is limited.